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 John Stuart Mill Quotes 

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I did not mean mean that Conservatives are generally stupid; I meant, meant, that stupid persons are generally Conservative. I believe that to be so obvious obvious and undeniable undeniable a fact that I hardly hardly think any hon. Gentleman will question it

A person may cause evil evil to others not only by his actions but by his inaction, and in either case he is justly accountable accountable to them for the injury.

I have learned learned to seek seek my happiness by limiting my desires, rather rather than in attempting to satisfy them.

It is indisputable that the being whose capacities of enjoyment are low, has the greatest chance of having them fully satisfied; and a highly endowed endowed being will always feel that any happiness which he can look for look for as the world is constituted, constituted, is imperfect. But he can learn to bear bear its imperfections, if they are at all bearable; and they will not make him envy envy the being who is indeed indeed unconscious of the imperfections, but only because he feels not at all the good which those imperfections qualify qualify

War is an ugly thing, but not the ugliest of things: the decayed decayed and degraded degraded state of moral and patriotic patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth a war, is much worse. When a people are used as mere mere human instruments for firing cannon cannon or thrusting thrusting bayonets, in the service and for the selfish purposes of a master, such war degrades degrades a people. A war to protect protect other human beings against tyrannical injustice; a war to give victory to their own ideas of right and good, and which is their own war, carried on carried on for an honest purpose by their free choice, is often often the means means of their regeneration. A man who has nothing which he is willing to fight for, nothing which he cares more about than he does about does about his personal safety, is a miserable creature who has no chance of being free, unless made and kept so by the exertions exertions of better men than himself. As long as justice and injustice have not terminated terminated their ever renewing fight for ascendancy ascendancy in the affairs of mankind, human beings must be willing, when need is, to do battle for the one against the other.

In this age, the mere mere example of non conformity, conformity, the mere mere refusal to bend the knee to custom, custom, is itself a service. Precisely Precisely because the tyranny tyranny of opinion opinion is such as to make eccentricity eccentricity a reproach, reproach, it is desirable, in order to break through that tyranny, tyranny, that people should be eccentric. eccentric. Eccentricity Eccentricity has always abounded when and where strength of character has abounded; and the amount amount of eccentricity eccentricity in a society has generally been proportional proportional to the amount amount of genius, mental vigor, vigor, and moral courage which it contained. contained. That so few now dare to be eccentric, eccentric, marks the chief danger of the time.

The only freedom which deserves deserves the name is that of pursuing pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive deprive others of theirs, or impede impede their efforts efforts to obtain obtain it. Each is the proper guardian of his own health, whether bodily, or mental or spiritual. spiritual. Mankind are greater gainers by suffering each other to live as seems seems good to themselves, than by compelling compelling each to live as seems seems good to the rest.

Stupidity is much the same all the world over. A stupid person's notions notions and feelings may confidently be inferred from inferred from those which prevail prevail in the circle by which the person is surrounded. Not so with those whose opinions opinions and feelings are an emanation emanation from their own nature and faculties.

He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able able to refute refute them. But if he is equally unable unable to refute refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion... opinion... Nor is it enough that he should hear the opinions opinions of adversaries adversaries from his own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied accompanied by what they offer as refutations. refutations. He must be able able to hear them from hear them from persons who actually believe them...he must know them in their most plausible plausible and persuasive persuasive form.

Christian morality (so called) has all the characters of a reaction; it is, in great part, a protest protest against Paganism. Its ideal is negative rather rather than positive; passive rather rather than action; innocence rather rather than Nobleness; Abstinence Abstinence from Evil, Evil, rather rather than energetic Pursuit of Good: in its precepts precepts (as has been well said) 'thou shalt not' predominates predominates unduly over 'thou shalt.

Even despotism does not produce its worst effects, effects, so long as individuality exists under it; and whatever crushes crushes individuality is despotism, by whatever name it may be called, and whether it professes professes to be enforcing enforcing the will of God or the injunctions injunctions of men.

It still remains remains unrecognised, that to bring a child into existence existence without a fair prospect prospect of being able, able, not only to provide provide food for its body, but instruction and training for its mind, is a moral crime, both against the unfortunate offspring offspring and against society; and that if the parent does not fulfil fulfil this obligation, obligation, the State ought to see it fulfilled, fulfilled, at the charge, as far as possible, of the parent.

The object of this Essay is to assert assert one very simple principle, as entitled to entitled to govern absolutely absolutely the dealings of society with the individual in the way of compulsion compulsion and control, whether the means means used be physical force in the form of legal penalties, or the moral coercion coercion of public opinion. opinion. That principle is, that the sole sole end for which mankind are warranted, warranted, individually or collectively in interfering with interfering with the liberty liberty of action of any of their number, is self protection. protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient sufficient warrant. warrant. He cannot rightfully be compelled compelled to do or forbear forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinions opinions of others, to do so would be wise, or even right. These are good reasons for remonstrating remonstrating with him, or reasoning with him, or persuading persuading him, or entreating entreating him, but not for compelling compelling him, or visiting him with any evil, evil, in case he do otherwise. To justify justify that, the conduct conduct from which it is desired to deter deter him must be calculated to produce evil evil to someone else. The only part of the conduct conduct of any one, for which he is amenable amenable to society, is that which concerns concerns others. In the part which merely merely concerns concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign. sovereign.

I will call no being good who is not what I mean mean when I apply that epithet epithet to my fellow creatures; and if such a creature can sentence sentence me to hell for not so calling him, to hell I will go .

Those only are happy (I thought) who have their minds fixed on some object other than their own happiness; on the happiness of others, on the improvement of mankind, even on some art or pursuit, followed not as a means, means, but as itself an ideal end. Aiming thus at Aiming thus at something else, they find happiness by the way. The enjoyments of life (such was now my theory) are sufficient sufficient to make it a pleasant pleasant thing, when they are taken en passant, without being made a principal object. Once make them so, and they are immediately felt to be insufficient. insufficient. They will not bear bear a scrutinizing scrutinizing examination. Ask yourself whether you are happy, and you cease cease to be so. The only chance is to treat, not happiness, but some end external to it, as the purpose of life. Let Let your self consciousness, your scrutiny, scrutiny, your self interrogation, exhaust exhaust themselves on that; and if otherwise fortunately circumstanced circumstanced you will inhale happiness with the air you breathe, without dwelling on dwelling on it or thinking about it, without either forestalling forestalling it in imagination, or putting it to flight by fatal fatal questioning.

The creed creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended intended pleasure, pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure. pleasure.

Every man who says frankly and fully what he thinks is so far doing a public service. We should be grateful grateful to him for attacking most unsparingly our most cherished cherished opinions. opinions.

A state which dwarfs dwarfs its men, in order that they may be more docile docile instruments in its hands even for beneficial purposes will find that with small men no great thing can really be accomplished. accomplished.

The human faculties of perception, perception, judgment, discriminative feeling, mental activity, and even moral preference, are exercised only in making a choice. He who does anything because it is the custom, custom, makes no choice.

But these few are the salt of the earth; without them, human life would become a stagnant stagnant pool. Not only is it they who introduce good things which did not before exist, exist, it is they who keep the life in those which already existed. existed.

Society can and does execute its own mandates: mandates: and if it issues wrong mandates mandates instead of right, or any mandates mandates at all in things with it ought not to meddle, meddle, it practices a social tyranny tyranny more formidable formidable than many kinds of political oppression, oppression, since, though not usually usually upheld upheld by such extreme extreme penalties, it leaves fewer means means of escape, penetrating penetrating much more deeply into the details of life, and enslaving the soul itself.

The only freedom which deserves deserves the name, is that of pursuing pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive deprive others of theirs, or impede impede their efforts efforts to obtain obtain it.

There are many who consider consider as an injury to themselves any conduct conduct which they have a distaste for, and resent resent it as an outrage outrage to their feelings; as a religious bigot, bigot, when charged with charged with disregarding disregarding the religious feelings of others, has been known to retort retort that they disregard disregard his feelings, by persisting persisting in their abominable abominable worship worship or creed. creed. But there is no parity between the feeling of a person for his own opinion, opinion, and the feeling of another another who is offended at his holding it; no more than between the desire of a thief to take a purse, and the desire of the right owner to keep it. And a person's taste is as much his own peculiar peculiar concern concern as his opinion opinion or his purse. It is easy for any one to imagine an ideal public, which leaves the freedom and choice of individuals in all uncertain uncertain matters undisturbed, and only requires them to abstain abstain from modes of conduct conduct which universal experience has condemned. condemned. But where has there been seen a public which set any such limit to its censorship? censorship? or when does the public trouble itself about universal experience. In its interferences with personal conduct conduct it is seldom seldom thinking of thinking of anything but the enormity enormity of acting or feeling differently from itself; and this standard of judgment, thinly disguised, disguised, is held up to mankind as the dictate of religion and philosophy, by nine tenths of all moralists and speculative writers. These teach that things are right because they are right; because we feel them to be so. They tell us to search in our own minds and hearts for laws of conduct conduct binding on ourselves and on all others. What can the poor public do but apply these instructions, and make their own personal feelings of good and evil, evil, if they are tolerably unanimous unanimous in them, obligatory obligatory on all the world?

The tendency tendency has always been strong to believe that whatever received a name must be an entity entity or being, having an independent existence existence of its own. And if no real entity entity answering to the name could be found, men did not for that reason suppose that none existed, existed, but imagined that it was something peculiarly peculiarly abstruse abstruse and mysterious. mysterious.

if any opinion opinion is compelled compelled to silence, that opinion opinion may, for aught we can certainly certainly know, be true. To deny deny this is to assume our own infallibility. infallibility.

Unfortunately for the good sense of mankind, the fact of their fallibility is far from carrying the weight in their practical judgement, which is always allowed to it in theory; for while every one well knows himself to be fallible, few think it necessary necessary to take any precautions precautions against their own fallibility.

I consider consider it presumption presumption in anyone to pretend pretend to decide what women are or are not, can or cannot be, by natural constitution. They have always hitherto hitherto been kept, as far as regards regards spontaneous spontaneous development, in so unnatural a state, that their nature cannot but have been greatly distorted distorted and disguised; disguised; and no one can safely pronounce that if women's nature were left to left to choose its direction as freely as men's, and if no artificial artificial bent were attempted to be given to it except except that required by the conditions of human society, and given to both sexes alike, there would be any material difference, or perhaps perhaps any difference at all, in the character and capacities which would unfold themselves.

There is always need of persons not only to discover new truths, and point out point out when what were once truths are true no longer, but also to commence commence new practices, and set the example of more enlightened enlightened conduct, conduct, and better taste and sense in human life.

It is part of the irony irony of life that the strongest feelings of devoted gratitude of which human nature seems seems to be susceptible, susceptible, are called forth in human beings towards those who, having the power entirely entirely to crush crush their earthly existence, existence, voluntarily refrain refrain from using that power.

So true is that unnatural generally means means only uncustomary, and that everything which is usual usual appears appears natural.

A general State education is a mere mere contrivance for moulding people to be exactly like one another; another; and as the mould in which it casts them is that which pleases pleases the dominant dominant power in the government, whether this be a monarch, an aristocracy, aristocracy, or a majority of the existing existing generation; in proportion as it is efficient efficient and successful, it establishes establishes a despotism over the mind, leading by a natural tendency tendency to one over the body.

Despotism is a legitimate legitimate mode of government in dealing with barbarians, provided provided the end be their improvement.

The art of music is good, for the reason, among others, that it produces pleasure; pleasure; but what proof is it possible to give that pleasure pleasure is good? If, then, it is asserted asserted that there is a comprehensive comprehensive formula, including including all things which are in themselves good, and that whatever else is good, is not so as an end, but as a mean, mean, the formula may be accepted or rejected, rejected, but is not a subject subject of what is commonly understood by proof.

All social inequalities which have ceased ceased to be considered considered expedient, expedient, assume the character not of simple inexpediency, but of injustice, and appear appear so tyrannical, that people are apt apt to wonder how they ever could have been tolerated; tolerated; forgetful that they themselves perhaps perhaps tolerate tolerate other inequalities under an equally mistaken notion notion of expediency, the correction of which would make that which they approve approve seem seem quite quite as monstrous monstrous as what they have at last learnt to condemn. condemn. The entire entire history of social improvement has been a series of transitions, by which one custom custom or institution after another, another, from being a supposed primary necessity necessity of social existence, existence, has passed into the rank of a universally stigmatised stigmatised injustice and tyranny. tyranny. So it has been with the distinctions distinctions of slaves slaves and freemen, nobles and serfs, patricians patricians and plebeians; and so it will be, and in part already is, with the aristocracies aristocracies of colour, race, and sex.

As long as justice and injustice have not terminated terminated their ever renewing fight for ascendancy ascendancy in the affairs of mankind, human beings must be willing, when need is, to do battle for the one against the other.

It is given to no human being to stereotype stereotype a set of truths, and walk safely by their guidance with his mind's eye closed.

Experience has taught me that those who give their time to the absorbing absorbing claims claims of what is called society, not having leisure to keep up a large acquaintance acquaintance with the organs of opinion, opinion, remain remain much more ignorant of the general state either of the public mind, or of the active and instructed part of it, than a recluse recluse who reads the newspapers need be.

I have a hundred times heard him say, that all ages and nations have represented represented their gods as wicked, wicked, in a constantly increasing progression; that mankind have gone on adding trait trait after trait trait till they reached the most perfect conception conception of wickedness wickedness which the human mind could devise, devise, and have called this God, and prostrated prostrated themselves before it.

In a world in which there is so much to interest, so much to enjoy, and so much also to correct and improve, everyone who has this moderate moderate amount amount of moral and intellectual requisites is capable capable of an existence existence which may be called enviable; and unless such a person, through bad laws, or subjection subjection to the will of others, is denied denied the liberty liberty to use the sources of happiness within his reach, he will not fail to find the enviable existence existence

[People] ask themselves, what is suitable for my position? What is usually usually done by persons of my station and percuniary circumstances? circumstances? Or (worse still) what is usually usually done by persons of a station and circumstances circumstances superior to mine? I do not mean mean that they choose what is customary customary in preference to what suits their own inclinations. inclinations. It does not occur to occur to them to have any inclination, inclination, except except for what is customary. customary. Thus the mind itself is bowed bowed to the yoke: even in what people do for pleasure, pleasure, conformity conformity is the first thing thought of thought of they like in crowds; they exercise choice only among things that are commonly done: peculiarity of taste, eccentricity eccentricity of conduct, conduct, are shunned shunned equally with crimes: until by dint of not following their own nature they have no nature to follow: their human capacities are withered withered and starved: starved: they become incapable of become incapable of any strong wishes or native pleasures, pleasures, and are generally without either opinions opinions or feelings of home growth, or properly their own.

Most persons have but a very moderate moderate capacity of happiness. marriage a far greater degree of happiness than they commonly find, and knowing not that the fault is in their own scanty scanty capability of happiness.

Protection, Protection, therefore, against tyranny tyranny of the magistrate is not enough: there needs protection protection also against the tyranny tyranny of the prevailing prevailing opinion opinion and feeling; against the tendency tendency of society to impose, impose, by other means means than civil civil penalties, its own ideas and practices as rules of conduct conduct on those who dissent dissent from them; to fetter fetter the development, and, if possible, prevent prevent the formation, of any individuality not in harmony harmony with its ways, and compel compel all characters to fashion themselves upon the model of its own.

The real advantage which truth has, consists in this, that when an opinion opinion is true, it may be extinguished extinguished once, twice or many times, but in the course of ages there will generally found person to rediscover it, until some of its reappearances falls on a time when from favourable circumstances circumstances it escapes persecution until it has made such head as to withstand withstand all subsequent subsequent attempts to suppress suppress it.

The liberty liberty of the individual must be thus far limited, he must not make himself a nuisance to other people.

Foresight of phenomenon phenomenon and power over them depend on knowledge of their sequences, sequences, and not upon any notion notion we may have formed respecting their origin or inmost nature.

Human beings are no longer born to their place in life, and chained down by an inexorable inexorable bond to the place they are born to, but are free to employ their faculties, and such favourable chances as offer, to achieve the lot which may appear appear to them most desirable.

Society can and does execute its own mandates: mandates: and if it issues wrong mandates mandates instead of right, or any mandates mandates at all in things with which it ought not to meddle, meddle, it practises a social tyranny tyranny more formidable formidable than many kinds of political oppression... oppression...

I believe in believe in spectacles, but I think eyes necessary necessary too.

People think genius a fine thing if it enables enables a man to write an exciting exciting poem, or paint a picture, But in its true sense, that of originality in thought and action, though no one says that it is not a thing to be admired, admired, nearly all, at heart, think that they can do very well very well without it. Unhappily this is too natural to be wondered at. Originality is the one thing which unoriginal minds cannot feel the use of. They cannot see what it is to do for them: how should they? If they could see what it would do for them, it would not be originality.

Language is evidently evidently one of the principle instruments or helps of thought; and any imperfection in the instrument, or in the mode of employing it, is confessedly confessedly liable, liable, still more than in almost any other art, to confuse and impede impede the process, and destroy all ground of confidence in the result.

Since the state must necessarily provide provide subsistence subsistence for the criminal poor while undergoing undergoing punishment, not to do the same for the poor who have not offended is to give a premium on crime.

That the principle which regulates the existing existing social relations between the two sexes the legal subordination subordination of one sex to the other is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances hindrances to human improvement; and that it ought to be replaced by a principle of perfect equality, admitting no power or privilege privilege on the one side, nor disability on the other.

The worth of a State, in the long run in the long run is the worth of the individuals composing it; and a State which postpones the interests of their mental expansion expansion and elevation elevation to a little more of administrative skill, or of that semblance semblance of it which practice gives in gives in the details of business; a State which dwarfs dwarfs its men. In order that they may be more docile docile instruments in its hands even for beneficial purposes will find that with small men no great thing can really be accomplished; accomplished; and that the perfection of machinery to which it has sacrificed sacrificed everything will in the end avail it nothing, for want of the vital vital power which, in order that the machine might work more smoothly, it has preferred to banish.

The yoke is naturally and necessarily humiliating humiliating to all persons, except except the one who is on the throne, together with, at most, the one who expects to succeed to it.

All women are brought up from the very earliest years in the belief that their ideal of character is the very opposite to that of men; not self will,and government by self control, but submission and yielding to the control of others. All the moralities tell them that it is their nature to live for live for others;to make complete abnegation abnegation of themselves,and to have no life but in their affections. affections.

religion, the most powerful of the elements which have entered into entered into the formation of moral feeling, having almost always been governed either by the ambition ambition of a hierarchy, hierarchy, seeking seeking control over every department of human conduct, conduct, or by the spirit of Puritanism.

Civil, Civil, or Social Liberty: Liberty: the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately legitimately exercised by society over the individual.

There is the greatest difference between presuming presuming an opinion opinion to be true, because, with every opportunity for contesting contesting it, it has not been refuted, refuted, and assuming its truth for the purpose of not permitting its refutation. refutation.

To prevent prevent the weaker members of the community from being preyed upon by innumerable vultures, it was needful that there should be an animal of prey stronger than the rest, commissioned to keep them down. But as the king of vultures would be no less bent upon preying upon the flock than any of the minor harpies, it was indispensable indispensable to be in a perpetual perpetual attitude of defense against his beak and claws.

Whatever we may think or affect affect to think of think of the present age, we cannot get out of it; we must suffer with its sufferings, and enjoy with its enjoyments; we must share in its lot, and, to be either useful or at ease, we must even partake partake its character.

The general or prevailing prevailing opinion opinion in any subject subject is rarely rarely or never the whole whole truth; it is only by the collision of adverse adverse opinions opinions that the remainder of the truth has any chance of being supplied

The amount amount of eccentricity eccentricity in a society has generally been proportional proportional to the amount amount of genius, mental vigor vigor and moral courage it contained. contained. That so few now dare to be eccentric eccentric marks the chief danger of the time.

An objection which applies to applies to all conduct conduct can be no valid objection to any conduct conduct in particular. particular.

To those who have neither public nor private affections, affections, the excitements of life are much curtailed, curtailed, and in any case in any case dwindle dwindle in value as the time approaches approaches when all selfish interests must be terminated terminated by death: while those who leave after them objects of personal affection, affection, and especially especially those who have also cultivated cultivated a fellow feeling with the collective interests of mankind, retain retain as lively lively an interest in interest in life on the eve of death as in the vigour vigour of youth and health.

Even a really superior man almost always begins to deteriorate when he is habitually habitually (as the phrase is) king of his company: and in his most habitual habitual company the husband who has a wife inferior to him is always so.

The love of power and the love of liberty liberty are in eternal eternal antagonism. antagonism.

Of all difficulties which impede impede the progress of thought, and the formation of well grounded opinions opinions on life and social arrangements, arrangements, the greatest is now the unspeakable ignorance and inattention of mankind in respect to the influences which form human character.

Natural rights, nonsense; natural and imprescriptible rights, rhetorical nonsense, elevated elevated nonsense, nonsense going on stilts.

All that has been said of the importance of individuality of character, and diversity diversity in opinions opinions an

Who can compute what the world loses in the multitude multitude of promising intellects combined with timid timid characters, who dare not follow out any bold, vigorous, vigorous, independent train of thought, lest it should land them in something which would admit of being considered considered irreligious or immoral?

In the case of any person whose judgment is really deserving deserving of confidence, how has it become so? Because he has kept his mind open to criticism of his opinions opinions and conduct. conduct. Because it has been his practice to listen to all that could be said against him; to profit by as much of it as was just, and expound to himself, and upon occasion to others, the fallacy fallacy of what was fallacious. fallacious. Because he has felt, that the only way in which a human being can make some approach approach to knowing the whole whole of a subject, subject, is by hearing what can be said about it by persons of every variety of opinion, opinion, and studying all modes in which it can be looked at by every character of mind. No wise man ever acquired acquired his wisdom in any mode but this; nor is it in the nature of human intellect to become wise in any other manner.

Such is the facility with which mankind believe at one and the same time things inconsistent with one another, another, and so few are those who draw from what they receive as truths, any consequences consequences but those recommended to them by their feelings, that multitudes multitudes have held the undoubting belief in an Omnipotent Omnipotent Author of Hell, and have nevertheless nevertheless identified that being with the one best conception conception they were able able to form of perfect goodness.

Lest the habit of work should be broken, and a taste for idleness acquired acquired

What the State can usefully do is to make itself a central central depository, and active circulator circulator and diffuser, of the experience resulting from many trials. Its business is to enable enable each experimentalist to benefit by the experiments of others, instead of tolerating tolerating no experiments but its own.

The struggle between Liberty Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous conspicuous feature in the portions of history with which we are earliest familiar, particularly particularly in that of Greece, Rome, and England.

My father's moral inculcations inculcations were at all times mainly those of the Socratici viri; justice, temperance temperance (to which he gave a very extended extended application), veracity, veracity, perseverance, readiness to encounter pain and especially especially labour, regard regard for the public good; estimation estimation of persons according according to their merits, and of things according according to their intrinsic intrinsic usefulness; a life of exertion, exertion, in contradiction to one of self indulgent indulgent sloth. sloth. These and other moralities he conveyed in brief brief sentences, sentences, uttered uttered as occasion arose, of grave grave exhortation, exhortation, or stern stern reprobation reprobation and contempt.

Capacity for the nobler feelings is in most natures a very tender tender plant, easily killed, not only by hostile hostile influences, but by mere mere want of sustenance; sustenance; and in the majority of young persons it speedily dies away dies away if the occupations occupations to which their position in life has devoted them, and the society into which it has thrown them, are not favourable to keeping that higher capacity in exercise. Men lose their high aspirations as they lose their intellectual tastes, because they have not time or opportunity for indulging indulging them; and they addict addict themselves to inferior pleasures, pleasures, not because they deliberately deliberately prefer them, but because they are either the only ones to which they have access, or the only ones which they are any longer capable capable of enjoying.

The only freedom which deserves deserves the name is that of pursuing pursuing our own happiness in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive deprive others of theirs, or impede impede their efforts efforts to obtain obtain it

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 8 May 1873), English philosopher, political theorist, political economist, civil civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal liberal thinker of the 19th century whose works on works on liberty liberty justified justified freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. He was an exponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham, although his conception conception of it was very different from Bentham's. He clearly set forth the premises premises of the scientific method.

The assumption that we are infallible infallible can we justify justify the suppression suppression of opinions opinions we think false. Ages are as fallible as individuals, every age having held many opinions opinions which subsequent subsequent ages have deemed not only false but absurd. absurd.

Feelings are of four sorts: sorts: Sensations, Thoughts, Emotions, and Volitions. Volitions. What are called Perceptions Perceptions are merely merely a particular particular case of Belief, and Belief is a kind of thought. Actions are merely merely volitions volitions followed by an effect. effect.

Logic, according according to the conception conception here formed of it, has no concern concern with the nature of the act of judging or believing; the consideration consideration of that act as act as a phenomenon phenomenon of the mind, belongs to belongs to another another science. Philosophers, however, from Descartes downward, and especially especially from the era of Leibnitz and Locke, have by no means means observed this distinction; distinction; and would have treated with great disrespect any attempt to analyze the import of Propositions, Propositions, unless founded on an analysis of the act of Judgment.

The necessity necessity of an enumeration enumeration of Existences, Existences, as the basis of Logic, did not escape the attention of the schoolmen, and of their master Aristotle, the most comprehensive, comprehensive, if not also the most sagacious, sagacious, of the ancient ancient philosophers.

Truth, in the great practical concern concern

An intermediate case is that of a name used analogically or metaphorically; metaphorically; that is, a name which is predicated predicated of two things, not univocally, or exactly in the same signification, but in significations somewhat somewhat similar, similar, and which being derived one from the other, one of them may be considered considered the primary, and the other a secondary secondary signification.

The second general division of names is into concrete and abstract. abstract. A concrete name is a name which stands for stands for a thing; an abstract abstract name is a name which stands for stands for an attribute attribute of a thing.

The distinction, distinction, therefore, between general names, and individual or singular singular names, is fundamental; fundamental; and may be considered considered as the first grand grand division of names.

We have had the morality of submission, and the morality of chivalry chivalry and generosity; generosity; the time is now come for the morality of justice.

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